+ 
Plus Sign 
addition 
10 + 5 = 15 
− 
Minus Sign 
subtraction 
10 − 9 = 8 
= 
Equals Sign 
equality 
6 = 5+1 
≠ 
Not Equal Sign 
inequality 
10 ≠ 9 
> 
Strict Inequality 
greater than 
55 > 14 
< 
Strict Inequality 
less than 
44 < 55 
≥ 
Inequality 
greater than or equal to 
10 ≥ 9 
≤ 
Inequality 
less than or equal to 
9 ≤ 10 
( ) 
Parentheses 
calculate expression inside first 
1 × (3+7) = 10 
[ ] 
Brackets 
calculate expression inside first 
[(1+1)*(1+1)] = 4 
± 
Plus  Minus 
both plus and minus operations 
3 ± 4 = 7 and 1 
∓ 
Minus  Plus 
both minus and plus operations 
2 ∓ 3 = 1 and 5

* 
Asterisk 
multiplication 
3 * 3 = 9 
× 
Times Sign 
multiplication 
5 × 5 = 25 
∙ 
Multiplication Dot 
multiplication 
10 ∙ 10 = 100 
÷ 
Division Sign 
division 
10 ÷ 5 = 2 
/ 
Division Slash 
division 
8 / 4 = 2 
mod 
Modulo 
remainder calculation 
5 mod 2 = 1 
. 
Period 
decimal point 
2.56 = 2+56/100 
a^{b} 
Power 
exponent 
3^{3 }= 27 
a^b 
Caret 
exponent 
3 ^ 3^{ }= 27 
√a 
Square Root 
√a
· √a = a 
√9= ±3 
^{3}√a 
Cube Root 
^{3}√a
· ^{
3}√a · ^{
3}√a =
a 
^{
3}√8 = 2 
^{4}√a 
Fourth Root 
^{
4}√a
· ^{
4}√a · ^{
4}√a · ^{
4}√a =
a 
^{
4}√16 =
±2 
^{n}√a 
Nth Root (radical) 

for n=3, ^{n}√8 = 2 
% 
Percent 
1% = 1/100 
10% × 30 = 3 
‰ 
PerMille 
1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1% 
10‰ × 30 = 0.3 
ppm 
PerMillion 
1ppm = 1/1000000 
10ppm × 30 = 0.0003 
ppb 
PerBillion 
1ppb = 1/1000000000 
10ppb × 30 = 3×10^{7} 
ppt 
PerTrillion 
1ppt = 10^{12} 
10ppt × 30 = 3×10^{10} 